Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
The alcalde mayor was usually an Insulares Spaniard born in the Philippines. Philippine map Main article: The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community.
His yearly salary was 40, pesos. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct.
Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo. The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families Collected tribute in the barangay Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period Position was made elective in ; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
Only the third objective was eventually realized, and this not completely because of the active resistance of both the Muslims in the south and the Igorot, the upland tribal peoples in the north. Loss or capture of the galleons or Chinese junks en route to Manila represented a financial disaster for the colony.
They had been banished from the Philippines in by King Charles III of Spain because of certain policies of the order that Spanish authorities did not like and their parishes and missions were transferred to other religious orders.
It also faced the hostility of the traders of the Galleon trade see above who saw it as competition. The Royal Philippine Company in and the Galleon trade in The padres directed the planting of three rows of willow trees that shaded travelers between the two settlements.
While the trade did bring some results which were beneficial to the Philippines, most effects were disadvantageous. The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce.
Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples he named "Indians. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos collectors of the tributeas well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century.
This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later it was reduced to 15 days. This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and inFrance agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarrewhich had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties in,and Religion played a significant role in Spain's relations with and attitudes toward the indigenous population.
Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list padronrecruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription quintopostal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. Alcalde mayors and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province and even vice-regal patron.
Composed of leading men in blocal and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture and established an academy of design. He was responsible for peace and order and recruited men for communal public works. He dominated the Audienciaor high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit.
Manila-Acapulco galleon trade[ edit ] The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb.
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Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still.
the early spanish period Philippines Table of Contents The first recorded sighting of the Philippines by Europeans was on March 16,during Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe.
The Spanish Empire (Spanish: Imperio Español; Latin: Indian caciques were crucial in the early Spanish period, especially when the economy was still based on extracting tribute and labor from commoner Indians who had rendered goods and service to their overlords in the prehispanic period.
Spanish Period: to Inas European nations continued to compete for territory in North America, Spain began the colonization of the West Coast north of Nueva Espana.
That year, Don Gaspar de Portola led a Spanish expedition overland to Alta California, and its members became the first Europeans to see el brazo del mar [“the .The spanish period